Friend friend Key concepts in understanding Chinese culture:
The study of writing systems, to a large extent, consists of establishing correspondences between these marks, or symbols, and units of the spoken language such as individual sounds, syllables, morphemes smallest units of meaningor words.
Whereas speech is ephemeral, writing leaves a permanent record of a language. The invention of writing some 5, years ago is probably one of the greatest achievements of humankind. There are differing opinions as to why people felt the need to write. Some think that religion was the motivating force, while others suggest that it was motivated by the need to keep business records.
Cuneiform Early shipping records kept on clay tablets gave rise to cuneiform writing in Mesopotamia in 3, BC.
Symbols were scratched on flat clay tablets with a squared-off stick which left wedge-shaped marks in the clay. These scripts have a similar appearance. Scholars tried to figure out this writing system after it had been dead for close to 1, years.
This system used symbols to represent discrete speech sounds. The Greeks felt that they needed symbols for representing vowels.
So they chose some Semitic consonants to represent Greek consonants and then used the extra Semitic consonant symbols for Greek vowels. Thus, the Greek alphabet was the first alphabet that included symbols to represent vowels. It was used for non-religious purposes until the 18th century, when it completely replaced Khutsuri.
These additional letters were used for Old Church Slavonic sounds not represented in the Greek script. Cyrillic was most probably developed by disciples of Cyril and Methodius.
There are some relatively minor differences in the Cyrillic alphabets depending on the language.26 July Image by gwaar A few weeks ago I asked you to tell me your concerns about business writing.
While writing 手紙 (tegami, letters) in Japanese may be intimidating, メール (mēru, emails) give nonnative speakers very few excuses for not keeping up our correspondence with Japanese. If you work for a company, you should use your company email address. But if you use a personal email account — whether you are self-employed or just like using it occasionally for work-related correspondences — you should be careful when choosing that address, Pachter says. Majors & Minors This page contains all the majors and minors from the College of Letters and Sciences. Please use the menu on the right to .
(Note: You can send me your questions and concerns any time.)One reader, Ellen, asked about polite things to say at the end of an email or letter. The Japanese language uses three different systems for writing.
There are two syllabaries— hiragana and katakana —which have characters for each basic mora (syllable.) Along with the syllabaries, there are also kanji, which is a writing system based on Chinese characters. Secrets of Japanese business etiquette. Japanese business etiquette is another misunderstood aspect of doing business in Japan: as with the section on Japanese business culture, maybe it’s not surprising that hundreds of thousands of people have also browsed this Japanese business etiquette section since it first went online over a decade ago in A Guide to Reading and Writing Japanese: Fourth Edition, JLPT All Levels (2, Japanese Kanji Characters) 4th Edition.
Business E-mail Format in Japanese I was just issued this “staff support book” which outlines employee duties, good work practices, and various other goodies which are causing me great joy, because they are the best example of Japanese corporate stupidity and herdthink.
Of course, the perfect way to start an email will depend on who you’re writing to, but in general, when you’re writing a business email to someone you don’t know well or at all, they say.