Dedicated to the military history and civilization of the Eastern Roman Empire to "Time in its irresistible and ceaseless flow carries along on its flood all created things and drowns them in the depths of obscurity. Violence escalated at various points where the power of the two empires met: The early years of war favored the Persians:
The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts.
Imperium Romanum, Imperium Romanorum; Greek: Res Publica Romana; Greek: Imperium Graecorum in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum Emperor of the Greeks  were also used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West.
Needing Charlemagne's support in his struggle against his enemies in Rome, Leo used the lack of a male occupant of the throne of the Roman Empire at the time to claim that it was vacant and that he could therefore crown a new Emperor himself.
History of the Byzantine Empire Early history The Baptism of Constantine painted by Raphael 's pupils —, frescoVatican City, Apostolic Palace ; Eusebius of Caesarea records that as was common among converts of early Christianity Constantine delayed receiving baptism until shortly before his death  The Roman army succeeded in conquering many territories covering the entire Mediterranean region and coastal regions in southwestern Europe and north Africa.
These territories were home to many different cultural groups, both urban populations and rural populations. Generally speaking, the eastern Mediterranean provinces were more urbanised than the western, having previously been united under the Macedonian Empire and Hellenised by the influence of Greek culture.
This distinction between the established Hellenised East and the younger Latinised West persisted and became increasingly important in later centuries, leading to a gradual estrangement of the two worlds. Byzantium under the Constantinian and Valentinian dynasties To maintain control and improve administration, various schemes to divide the work of the Roman Emperor by sharing it between individuals were tried between andfrom tofrom toand again between and Although the administrative subdivisions varied, they generally involved a division of labour between East and West.
Each division was a form of power-sharing or even job-sharingfor the ultimate imperium was not divisible and therefore the empire remained legally one state—although the co-emperors often saw each other as rivals or enemies. Inemperor Diocletian created a new administrative system the tetrarchyto guarantee security in all endangered regions of his Empire.
He associated himself with a co-emperor Augustusand each co-emperor then adopted a young colleague given the title of Caesarto share in their rule and eventually to succeed the senior partner.
The tetrarchy collapsed, however, in and a few years later Constantine I reunited the two administrative divisions of the Empire as sole Augustus. The western part collapsed in the s while the eastern part ended with the capture of Constantinople Constantine introduced important changes into the Empire's military, monetary, civil and religious institutions.
As regards his economic policies in particular, he has been accused by certain scholars of "reckless fiscality", but the gold solidus he introduced became a stable currency that transformed the economy and promoted development.
Constantine established the principle that emperors could not settle questions of doctrine on their own, but should summon instead general ecclesiastical councils for that purpose. His convening of both the Synod of Arles and the First Council of Nicaea indicated his interest in the unity of the Church, and showcased his claim to be its head.
In and he issued a series of edicts essentially banning pagan religion. Pagan festivals and sacrifices were banned, as was access to all pagan temples and places of worship. Arcadius in the East and Honorius in the West, once again dividing Imperial administration.
In the 5th century the Eastern part of the empire was largely spared the difficulties faced by the West—due in part to a more established urban culture and greater financial resources, which allowed it to placate invaders with tribute and pay foreign mercenaries.
This success allowed Theodosius II to focus on the codification of Roman law and further fortification of the walls of Constantinoplewhich left the city impervious to most attacks until To fend off the HunsTheodosius had to pay an enormous annual tribute to Attila. His successor, Marcianrefused to continue to pay the tribute, but Attila had already diverted his attention to the West.
After Attila's death inthe Hun Empire collapsed, and many of the remaining Huns were often hired as mercenaries by Constantinople. Odoacer, now ruler of Italy, was nominally Zeno's subordinate but acted with complete autonomy, eventually providing support to a rebellion against the Emperor.
By urging Theodoric to conquer Italy, Zeno rid the Eastern Empire of an unruly subordinate Odoacer and moved another Theodoric further from the heart of the Empire.
After Odoacer's defeat inTheodoric ruled Italy de facto, although he was never recognised by the eastern emperors as "king" rex.
He introduced a new coinage system of the copper follisthe coin used in most everyday transactions. The Justinian dynasty was founded by Justin Iwho though illiterate, rose through the ranks of the military to become Emperor in Inthe Corpus was updated and, along with the enactments promulgated by Justinian afterformed the system of law used for most of the rest of the Byzantine era.
Belisarius contributed immensely to the expansion of the empire. Inattempting to secure his eastern frontier, Justinian signed a peace treaty with Khosrau I of Persiaagreeing to pay a large annual tribute to the Sassanids. In the same year, he survived a revolt in Constantinople the Nika riotswhich solidified his power but ended with the deaths of a reported 30, to 35, rioters on his orders.
Although Agapetus failed in his mission to sign a peace with Justinian, he succeeded in having the Monophysite Patriarch Anthimus I of Constantinople denounced, despite empress Theodora 's support and protection.
|Byzantine Military: The Byzantine Militia||Dedicated to the military history and civilization of the Eastern Roman Empire to "Time in its irresistible and ceaseless flow carries along on its flood all created things and drowns them in the depths of obscurity.|
|davewils06||Sant'Apollinare Nuovo Justinian I. King Hildericwho had maintained good relations with Justinian and the North African Catholic clergy, had been overthrown by his cousin Gelimer in|
|Byzantine Empire, The||This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. Imperium Romanum, Imperium Romanorum; Greek:|
|Drawing of Job and His Family Represented as Heraclius and His Family||It takes the name Byzantine from Byzantium, the name of the city founded as a colony of the ancient Greek city of Miletus.|
|Follow Byzantine Military by Email||The Empire preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, but due to the increasing predominance of the Greek language, it became known to most of its western and northern contemporaries usually as the Empire of the Greeks. The term "Byzantine Empire" was popularized by historians during the 16th — 19th centuries.|
The Ostrogoths were soon reunited under the command of King Totila and captured Rome in Belisarius, who had been sent back to Italy inwas eventually recalled to Constantinople in Despite continuing resistance from a few Gothic garrisons and two subsequent invasions by the Franks and Alemannithe war for the Italian peninsula was at an end.
The empire held on to a small slice of the Iberian Peninsula coast until the reign of Heraclius. Tribes of Serbs and Croats were later resettled in the northwestern Balkans, during the reign of Heraclius.Start studying Chapter 8 Civilization in the Early Middle Ages, Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Muslim Arabs absorbed the culture of their conquered territories, Greco-Roman, Byzantine and Persian. Muslim scholars translated classical Greek writings that had been lost after . Aug 06, · Heraclius (r. –41), the most celebrated Byzantine emperor of the seventh century, suppressed the Sasanian Persian army’s advance on the Byzantine Empire’s southern provinces, reclaiming Jerusalem in , only to lose much of the territory to Arab advances during the final years of .
Persia and Byzantium GEOFFREYGREATREX From the s to the s CE, Persian attempts to gain VALENS (–78), leading ultimately to the definitive partition of the former between Byzantine- and Persian-backed kings in The resolution of this source of discord ushered in a lengthy period of peace, broken.
This history of the Byzantine Empire covers the history of the Eastern Roman Empire from late antiquity until the Fall of Constantinople in AD. After Manzikert, a partial recovery did nothing as the Ottomans picked apart the remaining Byzantine territories.
The Byzantine Empire, After Manzikert, a partial recovery (referred to as the Komnenian restoration) was made possible by the Komnenian dynasty. The first Komnenian emperor was Isaac I did nothing as the Ottomans picked apart the remaining Byzantine leslutinsduphoenix.comges: Latin (official until ), Greek (official after ).
After the Komnenian restoration briefly re-established dominance in the 12th century, the Empire slipped into a long decline, with the Byzantine–Ottoman Wars culminating in the Fall of Constantinople and its remaining territories to the Muslim Ottoman Turks in the 15th century.