The epic story of an American visionary and scoundrel Standing alongside J.
The Bridge to a New America America wasn't discovered -- she was built, first by colonial settlers and then by the actions of men who believed in the freedom to grow free of the bondage of England and slavery.
By the end of the American Civil War, like many of her buildings and industries, she was in pieces. In the years following the war, new industries laid the foundation for her reconstruction. Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and J.
Morgan were among the men who constructed a bold vision for a new, modern America. Cornelius "Commodore" Vanderbilt U. At age 16, the junior Vanderbilt began the first passenger ferry business in New York harbor with just one boat.
By the mids, he earned the nickname "The Commodore," operating a fleet of more than steamboats that controlled traffic on the Hudson River. In the late s, rail travel began to grow in the United States, and once again The Commodore seized opportunity. He purchased railroads in New York and followed the same business model he had used with his ferry venture, improving service and offering customers low fares.
InVanderbilt took control of the Harlem and was elected its president.
He later explained his reasoning for purchasing it: Others only saw its limits, but he saw a key advantage: Inthe Commodore sold his last ships, concentrating on expanding railroads. At 34 years his junior, Frank gave the year-old Commodore a new outlook on life, one that included philanthropic giving.
When he died at his Manhattan home on January 4,his estate controlled the largest fortune accumulated in the U. John Davidson Rockefeller U. A polar opposite to his con artist father, Bill, John was a careful and studious businessman who refrained from taking unnecessary risks.
The young Rockefeller sensed an opportunity in the oil business by the early s. Despite the ongoing Civil War, he opened his first refinery just outside of Cleveland, Ohio inand in Juneformed Standard Oil of Ohio, which rapidly became the most profitable refiner, first in Ohio and eventually in the entire United States.
One of Rockefeller's favorite business maneuvers was to buy up or create oil-related companies, like the makers of tanks, barrels, and pipelines, and then inflate the prices for competing companies.
He would also secretly buy competing companies and then use officials from these companies to spy on the activities of competitors. The sheer size of Standard Oil made it possible for Rockefeller to bully the railroads into granting him big rebates on shipping.
The rebates made his shipping costs much lower than that of any other competitor and worked to defeat the entry of new oil companies into the market. Rockefeller soon owned ninety percent of oil industry, creating the first monopoly in United States history.
Despite being a man of great religious devotion, his success was ironically based what would appear to be a complete lack of conscience.
He died on May 23,in Ormond Beach, Florida. Few recall his humble beginnings, as his name has become synonymous with wealth and prosperity. Inyear-old Carnegie and his family immigrated to the United States and settled in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. This was almost as big a risk as leaving Scotland behind for America.
If the bridge succeeded, it would be an amazing new connection between the East and the West, but a mile-plus long bridge - longer than any built before - was an exercise in trust in an era when one in four bridges failed.
The iron that was normally used for bridges did not have the strength to withstand the weight of a train and its freight, but Carnegie believed a steel bridge would succeed. However, steel was difficult to mass produce and extremely expensive. Carnegie eventually found the solution in the Bessemer furnace, but the construction fell years behind schedule and was nearly buried in debt.
InCarnegie's bridge over the Mississippi was completed. However, he still needed to convince people that the bridge - even made of steel - would not collapse. Inspiration struck Carnegie; a common myth of the time stated that an elephant could sense when a structure was unstable and would refuse to cross.As a result of this and the growing influence of corporations, specifically the railroads, a new political party emerged called the People’s Party, which forced the mainstream parties to change their platforms.
The Pullman Strike, Eugene V. Debs, In re Debs (Supreme Court) & Injunctions Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller have. US.3 Explain the impact of the Hayes-Tilden Presidential election of and the end of · George Pullman · Alexander Graham Bell · Andrew Carnegie · Thomas Edison · J.P.
Morgan US.8 Evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media as in the political cartoons of Thomas Nast and others during the. The Town of Pullman George Mortimer Pullman was one of the great industrialists of the time.
He was a creative, successful inventor, strategist, and executive - a perfect businessman. Before the Civil War, Carnegie arranged a merger between Woodruff's company and that of George Pullman, the inventor of a sleeping car for first class travel which facilitated business travel at distances over miles ( km).
The Rockefeller Foundation’s researchers developed the first successful vaccine for yellow fever in Thanks to the publicity efforts of the Dorr Foundation, those lifesaving lines are a part of every major highway in America. Scottish-American businessman and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie funded the construction of more than.
The Rockefeller Foundation has given more than $17 billion in current dollars to support thousands of organizations and individuals worldwide. the new program embraces sanitation, preventive medicine (above), marketing, rural economy and community work.
World War II ends the program. An expert on the impact of the mass media on society.