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Tom Hartley European Stereotypes, African Societies and the Mfecane The mfecane essay help part of the nineteenth century was a time of great social and political reformation in southern Africa, which was later to become known as the Mfecane. By Cape colonists believed that most of these new tribes now occupied new areas.
As a result of the original lack of first hand evidence, the Mfecane is still seen as a developing history, as new sources come to light. However the reasons behind this Zulu expansion are contested amongst historians.
There have been four main paradigms of Mfecane history. First, that it was brought about through the inherent nature of blacks and Africans as violent peoples, inferior to the intellect of whites, a notion championed by George McCall Theal.
Secondly, a revisionist view arising in the middle of the twentieth century off the back of nationalist movements across Africa, which saw the Mfecane as a mfecane essay help, liberating change for their nineteenth century counterparts. In the late s, Julian Cobbing wrote a provocative new thesis challenging the view that Africans were at the centre of the Mfecane, and that really it was brought through the influx of Europeans.
In this essay I will look at these theories in detail, assessing how they have been affected by European stereotypes of Africa, and how relevant they really are. One of the main problems of early Mfecane history writing was that there were few direct accounts from those caught up in the changes.
As a result, most histories have been based on the studies of the earliest historians of southern Africa writing in the s and s, some fifty years after the Mfecane.
The most notable of these is George McCall Theal. The latter half of the century had seen a remarkable shift in attitudes to race on the continent, and Theal was writing against this backdrop. Africans were no longer considered to simply be less developed humans, but biologically inferior to whites.
As this view of Social Darwinism took hold, with scientists looking at differences in brain size to establish distinctions between races, the original histories of the Mfecane were shaped. Despite most historians objecting to the view that this period had a harmful impact on African societies, even those on the opposite end of the spectrum, such as L.
D Ngcongco, appear to provide views to support it. He saw Africans simply as violent barbarians, a view largely fuelled by the information of the displaced Sotho tribes who migrated close to the established British colonies during the Mfecane.
The views of Theal remained commonplace entering the twentieth century, becoming the foundation of apartheid South Africa. This was until the s, when a new wave of nationalism spread across southern Africa.
These nationalists looked to create a new Afrocentric history and heritage, and the Mfecane was a crucial part of this. This line of thinking went against the previous belief that Africans were inherently backwards, believing that the events of the Mfecane took place rationally, with sound judgements from African leaders based on the problems of the time.
They agree that during the period there was a significant amount of population growth amongst the Nguni people, and this was not provoked by migration such as European settlers of Boers.Pedhazur measurement design analysis essay undergraduate research paper proposal in apa dissertation uzhhorod ethische problemen euthanasia essay ijsr research paper mfecane essay about myself hypervisor comparison matrix essay essay on green architecture for words harlem renaissance research essay the painted veil critical review essay.
Causes of the Mfecane Essay Topic – Discuss the causes of the Mfecane, taking into consideration the variety of historiography on this event.
Although no one can pinpoint exactly what caused the Mfecane, most believe the causes emerged at the end of the eighteenth and the start of the nineteenth centuries. thomas aquinas cosmological argument essays wozu philosophie essay help homogene differenzengleichung beispiel leslutinsduphoenix.com college english essays atlantic essay history in.
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