Feynman had described a process by which the ability to manipulate individual atoms and molecules might be developed, using one set of precise tools to build and operate another proportionally smaller set, so on down to the needed scale.
Artistic research[ edit ] The controversial trend of artistic teaching becoming more academics-oriented is leading to artistic research being accepted as the primary mode of enquiry in art as in the case of other disciplines.
As such, it is similar to the social sciences in using qualitative research and intersubjectivity as tools to apply measurement and critical analysis. It is based on artistic practices, methods, and criticality.
Through presented documentation, the insights gained shall be placed in a context. This may be factual, historical, or background research.
Background research could include, for example, geographical or procedural research. Patricia Leavy addresses eight arts-based research ABR genres: Documentary research Steps in conducting research[ edit ] Research is often conducted using the hourglass model structure of research.
The major steps in conducting research are: Often, a literature review is conducted in a given subject area before a research question is identified. A gap in the current literature, as identified by a researcher, then engenders a research question.
The research question may be parallel to the hypothesis. The hypothesis is the supposition to be tested.
The researcher s collects data to test the hypothesis. The researcher s then analyzes and interprets the data via a variety of statistical methods, engaging in what is known as empirical research. The results of the data analysis in rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis are then reported and evaluated.
At the end, the researcher may discuss avenues for further research. However, some researchers advocate for the reverse approach: The reverse approach is justified by the transactional nature of the research endeavor where research inquiry, research questions, research method, relevant research literature, and so on are not fully known until the findings have fully emerged and been interpreted.
Rudolph Rummel says, " It is only when a range of tests are consistent over many kinds of data, researchers, and methods can one have confidence in the results. Maurice Hilleman is credited with saving more lives than any other scientist of the 20th century.
This process takes three main forms although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure: Exploratory researchwhich helps to identify and define a problem or question. Constructive researchwhich tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question.
Empirical researchwhich tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence. There are two major types of empirical research design: Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the research questions they aim to answer: Qualitative research This involves understanding human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior, by asking a broad question, collecting data in the form of words, images, video etc that is analyzed, and searching for themes.
This type of research aims to investigate a question without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables.
It is viewed as more restrictive in testing hypotheses because it can be expensive and time-consuming and typically limited to a single set of research subjects. Quantitative research This involves systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships, by asking a narrow question and collecting numerical data to analyze it utilizing statistical methods.
The quantitative research designs are experimental, correlational, and survey or descriptive.This reference list was compiled by Robert Hare for personal use.
Most, but not all, of the articles listed on these pages discuss or evaluate the PCL-R, the PCL:SV, the PCL:YV, and other Hare leslutinsduphoenix.com to available abstracts, and when available, links to the full text on the Journal web sites are provided (search for [full text] on the page below).
Contemporary History and the Art of Self-Distancing. JAAP DEN HOLLANDER. History and Theory, Theme Issue 50 (December ), The metaphor of historical distance often appears in discussions about the study of contemporary history.
See the Site Timeline for a chart of Multics sites by date. For a list of significant Multics dates, see the Multics Chronology.
A ACM talk by John Gintell on Multics history is available on YouTube and the slides are available as a PDF.
new. 1. Summary of Multics. Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is a timesharing operating system begun in and used until Documents used in researching this project. This study has not been carried out with the rigour which would usually characterise an academic research subject.
Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.
While our foundation has held firm, we pride ourselves on continuing to modernize the curriculum and our teaching practices. The prestigious Bernard M. Gordon Prize for Innovation in Engineering and Technology Education is a nod both to our history and to our future, recognizing WPI’s project-based curriculum developing leadership, innovative problem-solving.