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This is often the concern when threatened or endangered species are affected by oil spills. Oil, by disrupting the interlocking structure of feathers, destroys the waterproofing properties of the external feathers and soaks the downy insulating layer.
This in turn can lead to: Internal effects Internal Effects The internal effects of oil on birds, while not as visually apparent as the external effects, are equally life-threatening. Birds can ingest or inhale oil as they try to preen oil from their feathers or feed on a contaminated food source.
Depending on the type of petroleum product, its weathering stage and its toxicity, poisoning through ingestion can range from sub-lethal to acute.
Ingestion of oil frequently results in injury to the gastrointestinal tract, preventing the animal's digestive system from processing food or water and causing the animal to become progressively weaker in a very short period of time.
Irritation of other mucosal surfaces can be seen, such as ulceration of eyes and the moist areas inside Effects on wildlife mouth. Red blood cells may be damaged or destroyed resulting in anaemia.
Kidney damage is believed to occur both as a direct effect of the toxins in the oil and as a secondary effect of severe dehydration. As an oiled bird becomes more debilitated, its immune system is compromised and the bird becomes susceptible to secondary bacterial and fungal infections.
The oil may also have an effect on the ability of those birds that survive the oil spill to reproduce.
Breeding and incubating behaviour, number of eggs laid, the fertility of those eggs and shell thickness thin shells are more likely to break before hatching may all be affected.
Hypothermia in polar bears, sea otters and fur seals pups, by reducing or destroying the insulation of their thick fur. Adult fur seals have blubber and would be less likely to suffer from severe hypothermia if oiled Skin lesions are a problem for dolphins and whales who do not have fur so oil will not easily stick to them who swim through oiled areas Eye irritation is a problem for all marine mammal species exposed to oil Marine mammals, particularly seal and sea lion pups, become easy prey when oil sticks their flippers to their bodies, making it hard for them to escape predators; fur seal pups can drown in this situation Marine mammals lose body weight when they cannot feed due to contamination of their environment by oil The scent that seal and sea lion pups and mothers rely on to identify each other is disguised, leading to rejection, abandonment and starvation of the pups.
In some species, mothers and pups rely on vocalisation rather than scent, making them less vulnerable to this risk. Inflammation or infection in manatees and difficulty eating due to oil sticking to the sensory hairs around their mouths Reduced ability to forage due to fouling of the baleen of surface feeding whale species Internal Effects Internal effects, also vary by species but may include: Congestion of lungs and damaged airways from inhalation of oil vapours and droplets Emphysema and pneumonia are possible in most marine mammal species but are a particular concern for sea otters who spend much of their time on the surface where volatile chemicals from petroleum are strongest and cetaceans who come to the surface to breathe.
Kidney, liver and brain damage, as well as anaemia and immune suppression, are potential side effects of ingestion and inhalation of oil Gastrointestinal ulceration and haemorrhage Anaemia from damaged red blood cells Damage to mucous membranes As impact assessments come in from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the US, evidence is emerging for significant health effects in dolphins, including liver and lung damage, suggesting that, in some cases, oil can have a much greater impact on cetacean health than previously realised.
In the breeding season females may become oiled when they arrive in the contaminated area or when they come ashore to lay eggs. Juveniles may become trapped in oil when they head to sea after hatching.
Offshore, the tendency of sea turtles to spend time in surface convergence areas which provide both food and sheltering habitat-particularly for young animals- but where oil also collects- puts them at greater risk of inhaling and ingesting oil.
Although there is little statistical data on the effects of oil pollution on sea turtles, they are subject to the following impacts: Poisoning by absorption of toxic components through the skin or ingestion of contaminated food, leading to damage to the digestive tract and other organs Damage or irritation to airways, lungs, and eyes Contamination of eggs, which may inhibit their development Impact assessment results from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the US, which occurred during sea turtle nesting and hatching season, will likely provide further information on the effects of oil on sea turtles.Wildlife poaching, the lucrative crime of killing animals for their parts and selling it on the black market, has negative side-effects that affect local communities, wildlife populations, and the.
Learn about our nation’s wildlife, the threats they face, and the conservation efforts that can help. Effects of Oil on Wildlife At an individual level wildlife can be affected by oil via: external contamination, in which the oil causes skin burns or changes the condition and physical properties of feathers or fur.
“When we add light to the environment, that has the potential to disrupt habitat, just like running a bulldozer over the landscape can.” — Chad Moore, fo. A groundbreaking report recently released by the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Science and Public Health affirms known and suspected impact.
Grefner, N. M., Yakovleva, T. L., Boreysha, I.
Scientific evidence suggests that artificial light at night has negative and deadly effects on many creatures including amphibians, birds, mammals, insects and plants. Artificial Lights Disrupt the World’s Ecosystems. Nocturnal animals sleep during the day and are active at night. Web site of the Ecolocical Services Program, a program within the Fish & Wildlife Service. Rehabilitation of oiled wildlife focuses primarily on the adverse physiological effects of oil on individual animals. These effects, while complex, can often be successfully counteracted through the cooperative efforts of veterinarians, biologists and rehabilitators with oil spill response experience.
K. (). Effects of electromagnetic radiation on tadpole development in the common frog (Rana temporaria L.). Russia n J. Ecol. – Grigor’ev Iu G. (). Biological effects of mobile phone electromagnetic field on chick embryo (risk assessment using the mortality rate).