Horsemen of both armies were initially limited to patrolling and scouting, guarding supply trains and railroads, and providing escorts to generals. They were only used in battle as shock troops, a tactic which dated back to the Romans. A favorite jibe from the infantry was: Certainly, the dash and spirit of the more flamboyant cavalry leaders provided the newspapers with many stories of harrowing rides and gallant duels in the saddle.
The American Civil War, —, resulted from long-standing sectional differences and questions not fully resolved when the United States Constitution was ratified inprimarily the issue of slavery and states rights. Over the course of the Civil War weapons ranged from obsolete flintlocks to state-of-the-art repeaters.
During the Civil War, women took on new roles, including running farms and plantations and spying; some disguised themselves as men and fought in battle. In the decades following the conflict, those who did not wish to upset adherents of either side simply called it The Late Unpleasantness.
It is also known as Mr. An estimated total of ,, were killed in action or died of disease.
More than twice that number were wounded but survived at least long enough to muster out. Casualties of the Civil War cannot be calculated exactly, due to missing records especially on the Southern side and the inability to determine exactly how many combatants died from wounds, drug addiction, or other war-related causes after leaving the service.
An untold number of civilians also perished, primarily from disease as entire towns became hospitals. Other actions include the Battle of MemphisCharleston Harborand Mobile Bayand the naval sieges of Vicksburg in and again in Throughout the war, the Union had a decided advantage in both numbers and quality of naval vessels.
On April 12 the Confederates opened fire with cannon. On April 15, Lincoln called for 75, volunteers to put down the Southern rebellion, a move that prompted Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas and North Carolina to reverse themselves and vote in favor of secession.
Most of the western section of Virginia rejected the secession vote and broke away, ultimately forming a new, Union-loyal state, West Virginia. Many graduates of the U. Neither side expected a war of long duration. Volunteers were asked to serve for 90 days. Southerners thought Northerners too weak and cowardly to fight.
Northerners thought a dependence upon slave labor had rendered Southerners too weak both physically and morally to present a serious battlefield threat.
Both sides were due for a rude awakening. To prevent a Northern victory, the South would have to defend that same large area, but with a smaller population and less industry than the North could ultimately bring to bear.
A short war would favor the South, a long one the North. The Western Theater began west of the Alleghenies West Virginia excepted and continued to the Mississippi River, but it also included the interior of the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida.
Events farther west are considered to have occurred in the Trans-Mississippi Theater and the Far West.
Lasting less than half an hour, the affair would barely qualify as a skirmish later in the war, but the Union victory there and subsequent ones in the region elevated the reputation of Major General George B.
McClellan, commander of the Department of the Ohio. The first real battle took place July 21,on the hills around Bull Run creek outside Manassas, Virginia, a railroad junction some 30 miles south of the Northern capital at Washington City Washington, D.
During the war, the North named battles for the nearest body of water, and the South used the name of the nearest town. The Union army made progress early in the battle, but Confederate reinforcements arrived late in the day from the Shenandoah Valley and routed the Federals.
The unfortunate Union commander, Irvin McDowell, was made the scapegoat and was replaced with an officer who had some victories to his credit: On September 10 a Union victory at Carnifax Ferry in the Big Kanawha Valley of West Virginia virtually ended Confederate control in most of the western counties, although there would be raids and guerrilla warfare there.
A successful naval invasion of North Carolina took place in August. The Western Theater saw only minor skirmishing. Kentucky was attempting to remain neutral and had vowed to take sides against whichever side first moved troops into it.
That was the Confederacy, which felt compelled to establish Mississippi River forts and establish camps within the state to repel any attempted Union move south. The Union commander, Nathaniel Lyon, was killed, the first Federal general to die in action during the war. Bee at First Manassas.
The year saw the first clash between ironclad warships, in the Battle of Hampton Roads. Lincoln announced his Emancipation Proclamation. The South found two heroes:The longer the war lasted, the greater the odds that the British would become involved in wars that threatened their own islands and that the British public would tire of the war and its costs.
During the first year of the war, Washington had lost a series of battles around New York but had withdrawn the bulk of his army to fight another day. See a timeline of events of the Civil War from See events by year and important Civil War dates. View our Civil War Timeline. Civil War Battlefields.
The battlefields of the Civil War crossed the nation and made famous many previously unknown towns, crossroads, and farms like Antietam Creek, Shiloh and Gettysburg. Oct 15, · Watch video · The Civil War in the United States began in , after decades of simmering tensions between northern and southern states .
THE RAID OF THE GUERILLA By Charles Egbert Craddock Product description. Product Description. Here's Ten of the Best Civil War short stories written some of the finest authors of the time: THE AFFAIR AT COULTER'S NOTCH By Ambrose Bierce CHICKAMAUGA By Ambrose Bierce. The Civil War started because of uncompromising differences between the free and slave states over the power of the national government to prohibit slavery in the territories that had not yet become states.
Cavalry divisions were utilized by commanders as advance scouts and as a mobile fighting force. These new strategies culminated in the largest cavalry battle of the war fought on June 9, at Brandy Station, Virginia. Brandy Station was the opening clash of the Gettysburg Campaign.4/5(19).